Rubee Fegan Valia Fetisov Luise Flügge Kurt Heuvens Ella Kühn Paula Pedraza Jascha Sommer Liang Zhu
Works from the seminar face off
In the current time of mass extension and digital erasure, the works on view probe the uneasiness about life today. Working through art as a conduit, students rebuild with portraiture, theatre, landscape, and new data identities.
Of face and no face
Non face and anti face
Face of denial
And face of presence
Evasion and embrace of confrontation
To stumble into, to control, to extend, and to question the bandwidth of different possible readings of face off, live situative set-ups and media networks are presented. Included are internet-based work, performance, architectural intervention, photography, video sculpture and sound. Within these, are subjects of river and roadside humans, dummies and human digital doubles, landscapes and cheery questioning portraits. Subject matters of watching, directing and consent are confronted. A cozy environment of “help” shelters and comforts you in one instance then changes you in another. A machine of electronic passage asks for you to show your face but then takes your face away.
Our relationship to desire, to discipline, and to performativity, can be bound up with the limits of the social codes at the place deployed. This coded world “facing off” to itself, opens up in art- with still new unquestioned trajectories.
Seminar Multimedia, Performance, Surveillant Architectures, Department of Art, KHM, with Julia Scher and Christian Sievers
1608 The earliest known working telescopes appear, credited to Hans Lippershey and Zacharias Janssen, spectacle-makers in Middelburg, and Jacob Metius.
1609 Galileo uses a refracting telescope as an instrument to observe stars, planets or moons. The name telescope is coined for Galileo’s instrument by a mathematician, Giovanni Demisiani, in 1611. The name derives from the Greek tele = ‘far’ and skopein = ‘to look or see’.
mid-16oosSystematic surveillance is being implemented for the first time when three conditions come together:
a) Enough people know how to read and write and there is actually something to systematically surveil: a great international culture of letter writing that had sprung up in recent decades becomes the data to be gathered.
b) It is possible to open and re-seal letters without being noticed.
c) There is a motive: the beheading of King Charles I of England in 1649 is a huge shock to those in power. Suddenly all the other big European nations see the need to better control their populace. The first to implement this is France which decrees that from now on all letters had to go through Paris, so they could be intercepted, opened and copied in the infamous cabinet noir, the first such black room.
1673 In his book ‘Phonurgia Nova’, Athanasius Kircher proposes a system of amplifying horns and camera obscura projections by which a monarch can surveil the noblemen at his court and thereby strengthen his rule.
1791General Idea of a Penitentiary Panopticon, drawing by Willey Reveley after Jeremy Bentham (the godfather of the panopticon still watches today as his auto-icon.)
A model of the Panopticon, Museum für Kommunikation, Frankfurt, 2013
1840Projet de pénitencier, Drawing by Harou Romain
1862 Balloons are used for aerial reconnaissance in the US civil war
1877 Thomas Edison invents the Phonograph cylinder, a device to record sound.
1889 Herman Hollerith develops and patents a punched card data processing technology for 1890 US Census and establishes the Tabulating Machine Company, one of the three companies that later merged to form the Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, subsequently renamed IBM.
1911 George E. Kelly recognizes military potential of aerial photography.
1914-1918Pigeons equipped with camera for aerial survey during WWI
1914-1918Before the invention of radar, aircraft were detected by listening. Directional Sound Finders used in World War I
1927 Julian Huxley, brother of novelist Aldous Huxley, invents an anti-mind-control foil deflector beanie – a tinfoil hat – in his short story The Tissue-Culture King.
1927 Russian inventor Léon Theremin develops a mirror drum-based television system which uses interlacing to achieve an image resolution of 100 lines.
1927 Herbert E. Ives of Bell Labs transmits moving images from a 50-aperture disk producing 16 frames per minute over a cable from Washington, DC to New York City. Ives uses viewing screens as large as 24 by 30 inches.
1935-1944 On air period of the German TV Station Paul Nipkow. Its headquarters were in Berlin. It was named after the inventor of the Nipkow disk.
1936 Walter Benjamin:The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction
1939 John Cage:Imaginary Landscape No. 1
1941 Konrad Zuse developes Z3, the first working machine featuring binary arithmetic, including floating point arithmetic and a measure of programmability. In 1998 the Z3 was proved to be Turing complete, therefore being the world’s first operational computer.
1942Siemens installs first CCTV for the monitoring the launch of V2 rockets
1945 Vannevar Bush publishes the article As We May Think in The Atlantic Monthly Journal. He is proposing a system called Memex (for Memory Extender) as an electronic extention of human memory and knowledge. A prototype both of PC and hypertext.
1946 Life Magazine photographer Yalo Joel uses a one-way mirror to trick people into posing for him
1946 Peter Goldmark (CBS) demonstrates his color television system. His system produces color pictures by having a red-blue-green wheel spin in front of a cathode ray tube.
1948 George Orwell: 1984
1949 This mechanical means of producing a color picture (by Peter Goldmark) is used to broadcast medical procedures from Pennsylvania and Atlantic City hospitals. In Atlantic City, viewers can come to the convention center to see broadcasts of operations. Reports from the time note that the realism of seeing surgery in color caused more than a few viewers to faint.
1951 The first video tape recorder (VTR) captures live images from television cameras by converting the information into electrical impulses and saving the information onto magnetic tape
1952 US President Truman formally establishes the NSA, which plays an instrumental part in the rise of the computer age. (Here’s a 1986 article by Friedrich Kittler about this, in German)
1956Ampex sells the first VTR for $50,000
1957Sputnik launch, 1st artificial satellite
1958 First use of stationary cameras to monitor traffic flow in Munich
1958-1980 Development and activity of SAGE, Semi-Automatic Ground Environment. This image was taken by a U.S. Air Force Airman or employee, made during the course of the person’s official duties
1960 TIROS-1, the first meteorological observation satellite launched by the USA
1962 The Mansfield, Ohio, Police Department hides a cameraman in a public restroom to gather evidence of homosexual activity. The footage was made into an artwork by William E. Jones in 2006.
1963Philips presents first audio cassette recorder
1963 Nam June Paik exhibits 13 TV monitors at Exposition of Music – Electronic Television, Galerie Parnass, Wuppertal.
1963-65 Ted Nelson (Project Xanadu) coins the term hypertext
1964MarshallMcLuhan publishes Understanding Media
1965 Andy Warhol gets to use one of the very first Norelco video tape recorders
1966 Psychedelics are huge. CCTV installations are part of the art at the Acid Test/ Trips Festival organized by the Merry Pranksters and USCO, including Stewart Brand: trippy dancers painted in day-glo colors watch themselves dance.
1967 Guy Debord:The Society of the Spectacle. “All that was once directly lived has become mere representation.”
late 1960s: ECHELON global surveillance system established. First revealed by British investigative journalist Duncan Campbell in 1988, it remains a “conspiracy theory” until its existence is confirmed by internal NSA documents leaked by Edward Snowden in 2015.
1969 Live transmission of the first steps of man on the moon. The video transmission costs as much as the space mission itself.
1969 Vito Acconci:Following Piece in New York
1969 John Lennon/Yoko Ono make Film No 6. Rape. The relentless, continuous and brutal harassment of a girl by a male camera crew
1969Bruce Nauman: First CCTV installation Video Corridor for San Francisco (Come Piece)
1969 Andy Warhol plans to broadcast a 6 hour stretch of continuous surveillance footage on the New York TV network; ‘Nothing Special’ was proposed to consist of footage of people walking by on the street at night. It never got made.
1969 US Defence and its Advanced Research Project Agency develop the ARPANET
1969Sony introduces a prototype for the first widespread video cassette, the 3/4″ composite U-matic system. Sony later refine it to Broadcast Video U-matic or BVU.
1974 The British Armyin Northern Ireland introduces first automatised vehicle number plates recognition system.
1974 Installation of 145 CCTV cameras to control traffic on major arterial roads in London. Their usage is soon expanded to include crime prevention and social control. The ongoing conflict with the IRA in Northern Ireland turns mainland UK into the most densely controlled state on earth. Today there are an estimated 4,5 million surveillance cameras in the UK, both publicly and privately run.
1976 Hannover follows the London model and installs 25 remotely controlled, movable and zoomable traffic cameras. A few years later there is blanket CCTV coverage of ‘problematic’ city areas nationwide across Germany.
1976VHS video format introduced by JVC
1977 Dan Graham:Performer/Audience/Mirror
1978 1st GPS satellite launched
1978 Antonio Muntadas: On Subjectivity (About TV)
1978Running Dog, a novel by Don DeLillo
“When technology reaches. a certain level, people begin to feel like criminals,” he said. “Someone is after you, the computers maybe, the machine-police. You can’t escape investigation. The facts about you and your whole existence have been collected or are being collected. Banks, insurance companies, credit organizations, tax examiners, passport offices, reporting services, police agencies, intelligence gatherers. It’s a little like what I was saying before. Devices make us pliant. If they issue a print-out saying we’re guilty, then we’re guilty. But it goes even deeper, doesn’t it? It’s the presence alone, the very fact, the superabundance of technology, that makes us feel we’re committing crimes. Just the fact that these things exist at this widespread level. The processing machines, the scanners, the sorters. That’s enough to make us feel like criminals. What enormous weight. What complex programs. And there’s no one to explain it to us.”
1979 first edition of ars electronica Festival, Linz, Austria
1980 Steve Mann begins work on wearables
1981 Sophie Calle produces The Shadow : «In April 1981, at my request, my mother went to a detetctive agency. She hired them to follow me, to report my daily activities, and to proviede photographic evidence of my existence.» In The Shadow she sets the detective’s photographic account against her own observations: the observer becomes the observed. The viewer is the third witness. This search for her own identity fails to reveal a clear picture here, too. Sophie Calle’s face does not appear in any of the pictures: her figure emerges like a shadow throughout the detective’s photographs
1982 David Rokeby starts to develop Very Nervous System, his first major interactive work using video cameras, image processors, computers, synthesizers and a sound system to create a space in which the movements of one’s body create sound and/or music.
1983 Michael Klier: Der Riese, an unconventionally constructed essay video on video surveillance in public space
1985Julia Scher‘s 1st reference to surveillance in Hardley Feel It Going In, a painting with a surveillance system
1986Julia Scher‘s 1st Bubble Memory device by Hitachi Softly Tapping The Wires (interactive installation)
early 1990s London installs its Ring of Steel in response to a spate of IRA attacks. The infrastructure is still in use today and has since been upgraded and expanded several times.
1991Julia Scher:DDD (Danger Dirty Data)
1992 Radiohead: Creep
1992 Two-year-old James Bulger is abducted, tortured and killed by two ten year old boys. The image showing the moment of the abduction makes front pages everywhere, bringing CCTV into the public imagination.
2001 CTRL [SPACE] opens at ZKM Karlsruhe. The first comprehensive overview of surveillance-related art works. The artist pages of the out-of-print and now precious catalogue can be browsed online. It’s the essays that are still worth reading, 14 years later. We have a copy in the office if you want to borrow it. the library has it, too.
2002 US Information Awareness Office established; allegedly abandoned in 2003 because of human rights and privacy concerns. 2013 Edward Snowden leaks reveal core projects were continued and up and running a few years later. One of the most ambitious / publicly known mass surveillance projects.
2003 Harun Farocki: Erkennen und verfolgen (War at a Distance). Just one of many of his works concerned with observational politics.
2004 Jill Magid: Evidence Locker
Multimedia Installation including Police CCTV footage, Sound piece, novella, website, email subscription system. (www.evidencelocker.net worked until 2019, now sadly defunct)
2004 MiroslavTichý‘s work is shown for the first time, encompassing photos from the 1960’s to the present.
2010 Adam Harvey:CV Dazzle: Open-Source Camouflage From Computer Vision. (“…a program of design of hairstyles and makeup to trick face detection software, to change the human face in ways that is still aesthetically pleasing to human eyes but rules out the attention of computers. This is interesting, because most of our ways of tricking computers are violently unfriendly ways.” James Bridle) See also:
2010 William Gibson proposes the Ugly T-Shirt in his novel Zero History. Using disruptive patterning, effectively what will later be called adversarial patches, to make its wearer invisible to surveillance cameras.
2010 Timo Toots:Memopol-1 An interactive installation that independently gathers and visualizes personal data. works.timo.ee/memopol/
2011 The Chaos Computer Club discovers and dissects the Staatstrojaner. Mass surveillance of Internet users makes it into the public consciousness.
2011Wikileaks targets companies that export surveillance and control software from the West to countries that rape, torture and murder, and is used e.g. by Syria to suppress dissent.
2011Drones find their way from the military to general police use, not just in the US but in Europe e.g. in Niedersachsen during Castor protests, to the protesters themselves, documenting their protest. The KHM’s lab3 got their first drone in 2012. The SAG gets theirs in 2016.
2012 Julian Oliver: Transparency Grenade. An open source device that automatically hacks into locally available wireless networks, sniffs traffic to extract confidential data and uploads all results to a publicly available web server.
2013 Google Glass released to developers, available to the public from 2014
2013 The Internet of Things is looming on the horizon. In addition, our tools and gadgets are increasingly locked down, and we cannot verify what processes are running on them. In effect, we are on our way to perfect and inescapable monitoring. The movement for free and open source software and hardware is gaining ground.
2013-14 Edward Snowden leaks. It turns out mass surveillance is not a conspiracy theory, but reality. Ongoing revelations at the time of writing, including the drive for a ‘full take’ of the world’s network traffic (“Why can’t we collect all the signals all the time?”), systematic weakening of security protocols, state-sponsored hacking into friends’ and foe’s infrastructure, etc etc. Worldwide repercussions, though no large scale outcry. Security researcher Bruce Schneier argues that the Internet has been commandeered by the NSA. In an unprecedented move, a range of privacy-oriented shops shut down and destroy their hardware, rather than cooperating with what they see as intolerable conditions.
2015 Google Glass project discontinued, too much opposition to ‘Glassholes’. Apple watch goes on sale: self-surveillance doesn’t cause the same moral dilemma.
2015 my own project involving a mobile phone, posters in public space and whistleblower William Binney: Christian Sievers, Hop 3, hop3.de
2016-17 In the “West”, now, too, surveillance by state actors, corporations and peers has become something that is being accepted and endured like the weather by many people. The number of art and design projects dealing with surveillance balloons. Bernhard Serexhe and Lívia Nolasco-Rózsás curate a follow-up to CTRL [SPACE] at ZKM Karlsruhe: GLOBAL CONTROL AND CENSORSHIP (featuring teachers and students of the Surveillant Architectures seminar among many other participants). Catalogue
2016 Information warfare: new fascists (the “alt.right”) are very successfully using social media to implement regime change. Fake news, social engineering, manipulation, microtargeting and propaganda contribute to the development that culminates in Brexit and the election of Donald Trump as US president.
2017 Amazon Echo, Google Home and other voice-controlled assistants are a must-have gadget, volunarily installing devices that literally listen to everything that is being said, and send it to servers in the US for analysis. Only a few experts voice concerns about the dangers of the complete loss of privacy, falling prey to manipulation as a result of being made completely transparent, and the threat of the amassed voice data being used by criminals and state actors for blackmail and fraud.
Speaking of the “other” can happen in different forms and dimensions. “Otherness” may include subjects and objects – it all depends on the position of the observer. THE INTERIOR LIVES OF OTHERS is a joint exhibition by Anna Ehrenstein, Will Fredo, Ai Kobayashi, Hend Samy, Bela Usabaev and Myrto Vratsanou, in which the artists engage with perceptions of the “other” and their interiority with diverse working methodologies.
Anna Ehrenstein’s multimedia installation deals with the embodied manifestation of cultural phenomena in the digital and analogue object. Consisting of lenticular prints, sculptural and textile works “A Lotus is A Lotus” explores the western desire for consumption of difference and the present day circulation, distribution and consumption of exotica.
In addition, Will Fredo’s video installation “Enclosures” questions the meaning and influence of certain buzzwords prominent in global arts circles from the perspective of queer men who live in Chinese metropolises.
Ai Kobayashi’s video work “LIVE ceremony” consists of a recorded one-person performance which deals with the Japanese traditional wedding ceremony and looks at its gender roles.
Hend Samy’s live performance includes spoken word and video where the artist embodies various roles in her nightmares of historically significant events, places and subjects including a repetitious white chicken.
In the durational performance “Just Me. self test 1.”, Bela Usabaev works on breaking a double bind. Inconsistent perception is addressed by meticulous screening, in search for non-fictional facts that are shared with others.
Myrto Vratsanou’s moving image work “Free Immersion Notes” revolves around the non- linear narrations of a bodilless character, she is reflecting on being scattered, connected through digital clutter, hoarding, haunting, glitches and relocations.
While Kurt Heuvens’ still and moving image installation feature his visual travel-log across Germany including subjects whose interiority is speculated.
In 2013, members of the Greek Nazi movement “Golden Dawn” murdered the antifascist rapper Pavlos Fyssas on the streets of Athens, a murder that was covered up by members of the Greek police, known to be riddled with Golden Dawn infiltrators, and abetted by Members of Parliament from Golden Dawn.
As the case works its way through the Greek courts, the University of London’s “Forensic Architecture” group has been called in to make sense of a welter of evidence about the crime and the cover-up, deploying their system of using “architectural techniques and technologies to investigate cases of state violence and violations of human rights around the world.”
The Fyssas trial has the potential to bring down Golden Dawn, to bring its true nature as an organized crime group into the open, to eliminate it from the Greek Parliament and to trigger a purge of Nazi elements from the Greek police. It is nothing short of seismic.
But even if you don’t care about any of that, this video is remarkable, a stitching-together of disparate and flawed evidence sources in a way that uses the strengths of one to overlap and fix the weaknesses of the other, creating a coherent and devastating story that is as well-told as any crime drama. It is truly virtuoso work.
Much of the original audio and video material was without an accurate timestamp, and it became apparent that attempts by the Greek police investigators to address this problem were insufficient. As a result, our researchers had to assess the material from scratch, and deduce the correct time and location of each piece of footage.
Audio recordings were assembled into a timed sequence through a process of sound analysis. CCTV footage from various locations around the scene was synchronised and given an accurate timestamp by reference to the sequence of audio recordings.